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ACD/Labs Blog

A deuterated solvent can impact whether exchangeable protons, such as OH or NH, are visible on a 1H NMR spectrum. The advantage of eliminating any contribution from an exchangeable proton(s) is to simplify spectral interpretation. One disadvantage of not seeing exchangeable protons is the deficiency to the total proton count in establishing the molecular formula....

A common misinterpretation of 2D NMR data can occur when dealing with weak correlations. Weak correlations are commonly introduced in how the sample is prepared or how the data is collected or processed. Examining the spectrum down to level of the density matrix can ensure all correlations are picked up. The 1H-13C HMQC below shows...

In addition to using chemical shift information to ascertain a carbon’s proton count (i.e. C, CH, CH2 or CH3), 13C NMR experiments can be set up in a variety of ways to assist with this process. The following simulated spectra compare a variety of 13C NMR experiments for aspartame. Please note that there are variations...

A previous blog described the Internet as a valuable tool in searching for previous work based on a molecular formula. In addition to searching the Internet “directly”, certain online sites can assist and facilitate the search process. Some of these sites are free while others have a fee. Be aware that the Internet is full...

Searching for unknowns across an internal library or database can serve as a major time saver. A more accessible database is the Internet. Many chemists and elucidators search the World Wide Web using a mass, a molecular formula or a fragment. Be aware that proprietary data sent over the Internet runs the risk of being...

In a previous blog, the atoms C, H, O, and N were limited to a specific range, 0-50, 0-100, 0-10 and 0-10, respectively. Starting from a wide atom count range ensures molecular formulae are not overlooked. The ranges for the atom count can be restricted further using additional information such as NMR, IR, etc. A...

With a monoisotopic mass identified from a mass spectrum, the next step is to fit a molecular formula (or elemental composition) to the unknown. For organic compounds, the starting elements of choice are Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and sometimes Sulfur. Information from starting material and known derivatives can also help when deciding what elements and...

With a well-tuned and calibrated, high resolution MS instrument, a molecular formula(e) can be devised from the m/z for an ion peak. In cases where more than one molecular formula fits, knowing the accuracy of the MS instrument can help in narrowing down the choices. The first step is to identify the molecular ion peak...

Like bromine, compounds that contain chlorine atoms have a distinct ion pattern on a mass spectrum. The A+2 peak for a monochlorinated compound will be at almost one-third the intensity to the 35Cl peak due to the presence of 37Cl isotope. A compound with two chlorine atoms will show distinct A+2 and A+4 peaks with...

When the incorrect number of directly-bonded protons are assigned to carbons, the elucidator is left with extra protons. (This can happen in situations with a highly-crowded region on a 1H NMR spectrum.) Where possible, tallying the expected number of exchangeable protons can serve as a warning flag that something is amiss. The following carbons, shown...