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Introducing Multifactorial Peak Crossover in Analytical and Preparative Chromatography via Computer-Assisted Modeling

Published online at Analytical Chemistry.

Imad A. Haidar Ahmad, Vladimir Shchurik, Timothy Nowak, Benjamin F. Mann, and Erik L. Regalado

In this article, Merck describes how they used ACD/LC Simulator to model peak crossover and improve productivity in prep LC development.

Modern pharmaceutical processes can often lead to multicomponent mixtures of closely related species that are difficult to resolve under chromatographic conditions, and even worse in preparative scale settings. Despite recent improvements in column technology and instrumentation, there remains an urgent need for creating innovative approaches that address challenging coelutions of critical pair and poor chromatographic productivity of purification methods. Herein, we overcome these challenges by introducing a simple and practical technique named multifactorial peak crossover (MPC) via computer-assisted chromatographic modeling. The approach outlined here focuses on mapping the separation landscape of pharmaceutical mixtures to quickly identify spaces of peak coelution crossings which enables one to conveniently switch the elution order of target analytes. Diverse examples of MPC diagrams as a function of column temperature, mobile phase gradient or a multifactorial combination in reversed phase and ion exchange chromatography (RPLC and IEC) modes are generated using [ACD/LC Simulator] software and corroborated with experimental data match (overall retention time differences of less than 1%). This powerful MPC technique allows us to gain massive productivity increases (shorter cycle time and higher sample loading) for purification of pharmaceuticals by selectively switching the elution order of target components away from undesired tailing peaks and coelution spaces. MPC chromatography dramatically reduces the time spent developing productive analytical and preparative scale separations. In addition, we illustrate how this new MPC concept can be used to gain substantial improvements of the signal-to-noise ratio, enabling straightforward ppb detection of low-level target components with direct impact in the quantitation of metabolites and potential genotoxic impurities (PGIs). These innovations are of paramount importance in order to facilitate efficient isolation, characterization, and quantitation of drug substances in the development of new medicines.

Read the full article online at Analytical Chemistry