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Mapping the Separation Landscape in Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography

Blueprints for Efficient Analysis and Purification of Pharmaceuticals Enabled by Computer-Assisted Modeling

Published online at Analytical Chemistry.

by D.M. Makey et al.

Customers of ACD/LC Simulator (now available as ACD/Method Selection Suite) contributed to this article on how they used the software to optimize 2D LC separations.

Recent developments in two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) now make separation and analysis of very complex mixtures achievable. Despite being such a powerful chromatographic tool, current 2D-LC technology requires a series of arduous method development activities poorly suited for a fast-paced industrial environment. Recent introductions of new technologies including active solvent modulation and a support for multicolumn 2D-LC are helping to overcome this stigma. However, many chromatography practitioners believe that the lack of a systematic way to effectively optimize 2D-LC separations is a missing link in securing the viability of 2D-LC as a mainstay for industrial applications.

In this work, a computer-assisted modeling approach that dramatically simplifies both offline and online 2D-LC method developments is introduced. Our methodology is based on mapping the separation landscape of pharmaceutically relevant mixtures across both first (1D) and second (2D) dimensions using LC Simulator (ACD/Labs) software. Retention models for 1D and 2D conditions were built using a minimal number of multifactorial modeling experiments (2 × 2 or 3 × 3 parameters: gradient slope, column temperature, and different column and mobile phase combinations). The approach was first applied to online 2D-LC analysis involving achiral and chiral separations of complex mixtures of enantiomeric species. In these experiments, the retention models proved to be quite accurate for both the 1D and 2D separations, with retention time differences between experiments and simulations of less than 3.5%. This software-based concept was also demonstrated for offline 2D-LC purification of drug substances.

Read the full article online at Analytical Chemistry