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Specific Classes of Compounds

R-5.7.7 Anhydrides and their analogues

Anhydrides are compounds formally derived by the loss of water from two acid functions .

R- Symmetrical anhydrides. Symmetrical anhydrides of monobasic acids, substituted or unsubstituted, are named by replacing the term "acid" of the acid name by the class name "anhydride".

Examples to R-

Cyclic anhydrides formed from two acid groups attached to the same parent hydride structure may be named in the same manner as symmetrical anhydrides, or as heterocyclic compounds.

Examples to R-

Cyclohexane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylic acid 3,4-anhydride
1,3-Dioxooctahydro-2-benzofuran-4,5-dicarboxylic acid
1,3-Dioxooctahydrobenzo[c]furan-4,5-dicarboxylic acid
1,3-Dioxooctahydroisobenzofuran-4,5-dicarboxylic acid

Phthalic anhydride

R- Unsymmetrical (mixed) anhydrides. Anhydrides derived from different monobasic acids are named by citing the first parts of the names of the two acids (i.e., the parts preceding the term acid) in alphbetical order, followed by the class name "anhydride" as a separate word.

Examples to R-

R- Chalcogen analogues of anhydrides having the general structure , , or are named in the same way as their oxygen analogues, using the class name "thioanhydride". The sulfur linkage between the acyl groups is given by the replacement prefix "thio-"; other sulfur atoms are indicated by "thio-" prefixes cited with the appropriate acyl group.

Alternatively, such thioanhydrides may be named on the basis of the parent hydride name "sulfane", the corresponding class name being "diacylsulfanes".

Examples to R-

The various unsymmetrical thioanhydrides derived from acetic propionic anhydride are named as follows:

R-5.7.8 Amides, imides, and hydrazides
R-5.7.9 Nitriles, isocyanides and related compounds

This HTML reproduction is as close as possible to the published version [see IUPAC, Commission on Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry. A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds (Recommendations 1993), 1993, Blackwell Scientific publications, Copyright 1993 IUPAC]. If you need to cite these rules please quote this reference as their source.

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