The validity of the extended Tanaka column characterization procedure against the retention behavior of 101 analytes of widely differing properties chromatographed on five differing stationary phase chemistries has been established using a chemometric technique called principal component analysis (PCA). It was concluded that the simple and conveniently determined column characterization parameters covered the same space in the PCA loading plot as the retention times for the 101 differing analytes. This confirms that the ten column characterization parameters of the extended Tanaka protocol encode the same information as the retention times of the 101 analytes. Significant selectivity differences were observed between stationary phases and the mobile-phase modifiers—MeOH and MeCN. PCA contribution plots served as a convenient way to highlight specific selectivity differences between stationary phases. logD values exhibited a poor correlation with retention indicating that retention in RP-LC is not solely dictated by the analyte’s hydrophobicity. The use of MeOH was found to generate greater selectivity differences with the five stationary phases than when MeCN is used.