ACD/Name

Specific Classes of Compounds

R-5.7.4 Salts and esters

R-5.7.4.1 Salts

Neutral salts of oragnic acids are named by citing the cation(s) followed by the name of the anion as a separate word. Diverse cations are cited in alphabetical order.

Examples to R-5.7.4.1

Acid salts of polybasic organic acids are named in the same way as the neutral salts, the remaining acid hydrogen atom(s) being indicated by the word "hydrogen" (or "dihydrogen", etc., as appropriate) inserted between the name(s) of the cation(s) and the name of the anion from which it is separated by spaces. Ionic substituents such as , , and are described by prefix names such as "carboxylato-", "sulfonato-", and "phosphonato-", respectively.

Examples to R-5.7.4.1

Sodium hydrogen 3-[3-(carboxylatomethyl)-2-naphthyl]propanoate

R-5.7.4.2 Esters. Fully esterified acids are named in the same way as neutral salts except that names of alkyl or aryl, etc., groups, cited in alphabetical order when more than one, replace the names of the cations.

Examples to R-5.7.4.2

Structural specificity for esters of thio- or selenocarboxylic acids is provided by the appropriate italic element symbol, such as S- or O-, prefixed to the name of the alkyl, aryl, etc., group, as needed.

Examples to R-5.7.4.2

Functional class nomenclature is often used for naming esters of natural products and in index nomenclature.

Examples to R-5.7.4.2

Partial (acid) esters of polybasic acids and their salts are named by the procedures for neutral esters and acid salts; the components present are cited in the order: cation, alkyl or aryl group, hydrogen, anion. Numerical locants and italic element symbols are added as necessary to provide specificity.

Examples to R-5.7.4.2

(note that the numbering of the diacid is retained)

When, in an ester with the general structure , another group is present that has priority for citation as a suffix (see Table 10, R-4.1, and Table 5, R-3.2.1.1), or when all ester groups cannot be described by the above methods, an ester group is indicated by prefixes such as "alkoxycarbonyl-" or "aryloxycarbonyl-" for the group , or "acyloxy-" for the group .

Examples to R-5.7.4.2

Functional class nomenclature can also be used, particularly in indexes, to describe an ester in the presence of a group with priority for citation as a principal characteristic group.

Example to R-5.7.4.2

Next:
R-5.7.5 Lactones, lactams, lactims, and analogues
R-5.7.6 Acid halides
R-5.7.7 Anhydrides and their analogues
R-5.7.8 Amides, imides, and hydrazides
R-5.7.9 Nitriles, isocyanides and related compounds

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This HTML reproduction is as close as possible to the published version [see IUPAC, Commission on Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry. A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds (Recommendations 1993), 1993, Blackwell Scientific publications, Copyright 1993 IUPAC]. If you need to cite these rules please quote this reference as their source.

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