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Carboxylic Acids and their Derivatives

Hydroxy, Alkoxy and Oxo Acids Rule C-416

416.1 (Alternative to part of Rule C-415.1) - As exceptions to Rule C-415.1, the following acyl radical names may be used even if the carbonyl group is included in the main chain of the parent acid or acyl radical: formyl, benzoyl (and substituted benzoyl groups such as toluoyl, xyloyl), 1- and 2-naphthoyl.

Examples to Rule C-416.1

(see also Rule C-415.1)

416.2 - When a dicarboxylic acid has a trivial name, the change of one of the carboxyl groups into an aldehyde group may be denoted by changing the syllables "-ic acid" into "-aldehydic acid".

Examples to Rule C-416.2

416.3 - The following are examples of trivial or semitrivial names for oxo carboxylic acids and for the corresponding radicals (see also Rule C-405.2):

Name of
the acid
Acyl radicals
Name Formula
Glyoxylic Gluoxyloyl
Pyruvic Pyruvoyl
Acetoacetic Acetoacetyl
Mesoxalic Mesoxalyl
Oxalacetic Oxalacetyl
See Recommendations'93 R-5.7.1

Amino Acids Rule C-421
Amic acids Rule C-431
Peroxy Acids Rule C-441
Imidic, Hydrazonic, and Hydroxamic Acids Rule C-451
Salts and Esters Rule C-461, Rule C-462, Rule C-463, Rule C-464
Lactones, Lactides, Lactams, and Lactims Rule C-471, Rule C-472, Rule C-473, Rule C-474, Rule C-475
Acyl Halides Rule C-481
Acid Anhydrides Rule C-491


This HTML reproduction of Sections A, B and C of IUPAC "Blue Book" is as close as possible to the published version [see Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, Sections A, B, C, D, E, F, and H, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1979. Copyright 1979 IUPAC.] If you need to cite these rules please quote this reference as their source.

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