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Carboxylic Acids and their Derivatives

Simple Carboxylic Acids Rule C-401

401.1 - Carboxyl groups COOH replacing CH3 at the end of the main chain of an acyclic hydrocarbon are denoted by adding "-oic acid'' or "-dioic acid" to the name of this hydrocarbon, with elision of terminal "e'' (if present) before "oic".

Examples to Rule C-401.1

401.2 - Alternatively, the name may be formed by substitutive use of the suffix "-carboxylic acid". In the aliphatic series the numbering of the chain does not then include the carbon atom of the carboxyl group. For simple aliphatic acids the nomenclature of Rule C-401.1 is preferred (see Rule C-13.21).

Examples to Rule C-401.2

401.3 - Carboxyl groups are designated by the prefix "carboxy- '' when attached to a group named as a substituent or when another group is also present that has priority for citation as principal group.

Examples to Rule C-401.3

401.4 - When the carboxyl group is separated from a ring by a chain of carbon atoms the compound is named (a) as a derivative of the acyclic system or (b) by conjunctive nomenclature. However, the use of method (b) for benzene derivatives is restricted as described in Rule C-53.1.

Examples to Rule C-401.4

See Recommendations'93 R-5.7.1

Simple Carboxylic Acids Rule C-402, Rule C-403, Rule C-404, Rule C-405
Hydroxy, Alkoxy and Oxo Acids Rule C-411, Rule C-415, Rule C-416
Amino Acids Rule C-421
Amic acids Rule C-431
Peroxy Acids Rule C-441
Imidic, Hydrazonic, and Hydroxamic Acids Rule C-451
Salts and Esters Rule C-461, Rule C-462, Rule C-463, Rule C-464
Lactones, Lactides, Lactams, and Lactims Rule C-471, Rule C-472, Rule C-473, Rule C-474, Rule C-475
Acyl Halides Rule C-481
Acid Anhydrides Rule C-491

This HTML reproduction of Sections A, B and C of IUPAC "Blue Book" is as close as possible to the published version [see Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, Sections A, B, C, D, E, F, and H, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1979. Copyright 1979 IUPAC.] If you need to cite these rules please quote this reference as their source.

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